In 1928, Alexander Fleming, a Scottish doctor and scientist, was working
at a hospital in London. He was trying to find ways to fight bacteria. At that
time many people died because of bacterial infections; sometimes from very
studying dangerous bacteria called staphylococci. He was in a hurry because he
was going to go on holiday, so he forgot to wash all his equipment in the
laboratory before he left. There was one dish in which staphylococci
came back from holiday a few weeks later, he noticed that there was something
in the dish. He didn't know what the thing was, but he saw that it was stopping
the harmful staphylococci bacteria from growing. Fleming called it penicillin.
He knew that
penicillin could be an important discovery, and so he did some experiments with
it. However, Fleming was not a chemist and he found it difficult to make pure
penicillin. He asked some scientific colleagues to help him, but nobody seemed
interested in producing penicillin. Fleming had to wait more than ten years
before two brilliant scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain finally found an
easy way to produce the drug.
By May 1940,
Florey's research team had enough penicillin to experiment with animals for the
first time. In a simple experiment they gave a dangerous bacterium to eight
mice. One hour later, they gave penicillin to only four of the mice. After a
few hours the four mice with penicillin were fine, but the other four were all
dead! When Florey heard of the result the next day he said, "It looks like
War II penicillin saved many lives, and in 1945 Fleming, Florey and Chain won
the Nobel Prize for medicine.
Multiple Choice Questions.
1. In 1928,
infected through the cuts
b. dissected a
lot of dead bodies
infected a lot of people
Fleming discovered penicillin....
a. while he
was on holiday
b. in a hurry
c. because he
forgot to wash up
d. when he was
couldn't produce penicillin easily because....
a. he was
b. of the lack
of the right equipment
c. he didn't
know how to do it
d. he couldn't
afford waiting for more than 10 years
4. The first experiment with penicillin on
b. caused some
5. How many mice pulled through?
THE WAR OF THE WORLDS
The year was
1938, and the entire country was nervous. It was the year before World War II
began. The United States was still recovering from the Great Depression - a
time when many people suddenly found themselves without money. In 1938 no one
was sure what would happen next.
that year, thousands of people across the country were listening to a popular
radio show called the Mercury Theatre. They heard dance music for a while, and
then an announcer broke in. Then the music resumed. Soon there was another news
bulletin. A famous astronomer reported that a seismograph had registered a
shock, almost as great as an earthquake, near Princeton, New Jersey. The music
came back on but was interrupted again.
reported that at 8:50 P.M. a huge, flaming object, believed to be a meteorite,
fell on a farm in the neighborhood of Gravers Mill, New Jersey."
listeners settled backs again to enjoy the music, but soon there was another
bulletin. This time it came from a mobile radio unit in Gravers Mill.
Sirens could be heard in the back - "Ladies and
gentlemen, we interrupt our program to bring you a special bulletin."
The bulletin told about explosions that had been observed on Mars
ground. A reporter described the scene.
and gentlemen, this is the most terrifying thing I have ever witnessed. Wait a
minute! Someone's crawling out of the hollow top. Someone or...
reports kept pouring out of the radio. The creatures were marching across New
Jersey, sending out poisonous gas in front of them. They were heading for New
York City. Nothing could slow them down.
time, thousands of listeners were calling police stations, hospitals,
newspapers, and government leaders. Some were asking for protection against the
invaders. Some were volunteering to fight them. In New Jersey, families fled
with handkerchiefs over their faces. Highways all around New York were jammed.
In the Midwest people hid in cellars or ran to warn their neighbors.
But it was
all a joke. All the special bulletins and the eyewitness reports had been part
of a play titled Invasion from Mars. The reporters and the
'eyewitnesses' were really actors. The sound effects were created by sound
experts in another studio. The actors and sound experts had done a good job. A
poll taken after the broadcast showed that more than half of the 1,700,000
listeners that night had believed that an invasion from Mars was really
happening. They didn't realize that it was just a radio play until the end,
when the director of the Mercury Theatre came on the air to say:
is Orson Welles, ladies and gentlemen, out of character to assure you that The
War of the Worlds has no further significance than as the holiday offering
it was intended to be ... it's Halloween."
Multiple Choice Questions.
6. The word 'bulletin' means a (an)....
statement giving news
7. Who conducted a survey?
b. The actors
c. The sound
d. It's not
8. The object
that fell on a farm wasn't (a)....
a. space -
9. Some Americans....
a. sent signals
into outer space
b. paid homage
Martians to celebrate Halloween
10. What could be heard in the background?
a. Dance music.
HOMEWORK IN PRISON FOR KIDS WITH CONVICT FATHERS
(by Bo Wilson from London Life 5/11/07)
text and decide whether the sentences are TRUE or FALSE.
Children as young as seven are being allowed into a London prison so
their convict fathers can help with their homework. More than 50 children enter
the gates of Wandsworth prison to take part in the homework club.
It was launched to allow youngsters vital contact with their fathers,
while giving the prisoners an extra incentive to rehabilitate. The Thursday
club, the only one of its kind in the country, is the initiative of Wandsworth
governor Ian Mulholland.
The children, all of primary school age, go through intensive security
checks at the category B jail to make sure they are not being used to smuggle
An officer at the prison, which holds 1,416 convicts, joked: "We
hope none of the dads are teaching their kids things like how to rob
Mr. Mulholland said: "The club plays an important part in
maintaining positive family relationships, which contribute to the offender's
resettlement into the community and the development of a purposeful and
who're under 7 are being allowed behind bars to get dad's help.
program is aimed to help offenders lead a normal life.
To my mind, ... As far as I am concerned, ... Speaking personally, ...
From my point of view, ... As for me / As to me, ...
My view / opinion / belief / impression / conviction is that ... I hold the view that ...
I would say that ... It seems to me that ... I am of the opinion that ...
My impression is that ... I am under the impression that ... It is my impression that ...
I have the feeling that ... My own feeling on the subject is that ...
I have no doubt that ... I am sure / I am certain that ...
I think / consider / find / feel / believe / suppose / presume / assume that ...
I hold the opinion that ... (I form / adopt an opinion.) I dare say that ...
I guess that ... I bet that .... I gather that ...
It goes without saying that ...
Linking words and phrases
Although some of these words have already been mentioned as sentence connectors, they can also be used to develop coherence within a paragraph, that is linking one idea / argument to another. Print off this page to keep as a reference of useful linking words and phrases.
First / firstly, second / secondly, third / thirdly etc
world computers and the Internet have become an indispensible part of modern
life. Have computers and the Internet truly improved the quality of people’s
life? What are the disadvantages of using them too often?
1.Ukraine is a very beautiful country, isn’t
do you like about your country?
are some of your favorite national traditions and customs?
believe that our country will become a wealthy and prosperous country as any
other European country?
2.What's your favorite subject in school?
·What are your favorite activities at this subject's lessons?
· Would you like to teach this
· What is your teacher like?
3.Today many countries in the world place a lot of importance on learning
English in schools.
·What do you think are the reasons for this attention?
·Does English help you in your life?
·How will you use English after finishing school?
healthy way of life: what does it mean?
people worry much about their health these days?
do you think are the main health risks people efface today?
advice can you give teenagers about healthy living?
5.Imagine that you have become a finalist of Future Leaders Exchange
Program (FLEX) and are going to spend a year in the USA
·What would you tell your host family about yourself?
·How would you describe your family to them?
·What are your favourite activities in your free time?
6.What are the most important qualities a friend can have?
·Why are these qualities so important?
·Do your closest friends have these qualities? Do you?
·What does friendship mean in your life?
7.Pollution has become the greatest problem in the world.
·Describe any problems with pollution
·Talk about the effects of pollution on the people, the crops and the
· Tell what you think should and
could be done to make the situation better.
8.You are planning a trip to another country.
·Why have you chosen this country?
·How will you get there? Where will you be living abroad?
·The sights you are going to see there.
person you know is planning to visit your town or city
what season would you recommend him or her to visit and why?
areas of interest would you show her or him first?
do you think this person would like to do in your town or city? Why?
10.Music influences people in different ways.
does music play an important part in people’s lives?
type of music influences you the most? How?
musician has had the greatest impact on you? Why?
11.Say which way you would prefer to travel and explain
why. Include the following information:
are the advantages and disadvantages of different means of transport?
is your favourite way of travelling?
you ever travelled by plane/by train/by ship? When? Where? Why?
12.Your English friends are going to visit our capital
city and ask you to tell them about it. Include the following information:
to eat and means of transport to travel by.
13.Many inventions have completely changed the world. Do
you think so?
invention in your opinion has been the most important for the human race?
21st century invention has changed our life completely?
you imagine your life without a сomputer?
14.There are many traditional holidays in our country.
is the most important holiday for the Ukrainians? Why?
you have any family traditions?
you celebrate any holidays at school?
15.Sports no doubts play an important role in people’s lives. Speak about sports in your life.
of doing sports for people.
do sports teach you?
16.You are in the 9th form. It’s time to think
about your future profession. Do you know what you want?
about a variety of professions.
is it difficult for a young person to make a right choice of a future
profession? What should teenagers pay attention to while choosing a future
is the most important in your future profession? Give your reasons.
17.Speak about the film you have seen recently. Give your
·The title / main actors / the
·The music, costumes or special
18.What activities do you find enjoyable when you are
is this activity so enjoyable to you?
you feel it is important to have time to spend by yourself? Why?
activity would you recommend your friend to take up in his free time?
19.Some people say that reading books has become a thing
of the past because one can find anything he needs in the Internet.
you agree or disagree with the above statement?
do people read books?
your opinion, what is the most interesting genre of books?
20.What is your idea of a perfect vacation?
·When and where would you go?
·For how long would you be away?
would you like to do and to see during your vacation?